Microaggressions are subtle interactions and behaviors that show bias towards historically marginalized groups. Often, those committing microaggressions are unaware of their impact on others. It’s crucial to be aware of them, especially since they commonly target race, sexuality, and gender, but they can also involve religion, appearance, and health.

Background and Origins


In 1970, Harvard University psychiatrist Chester M. Pierce introduced the term “microaggressions” to describe insults and comments made by non-Black Americans towards African Americans. Over time, the term evolved to include casual degradation towards any marginalized group, thanks to the work of psychologists like Derald Wing Sue and Kevin Nadal.

Everyday Microaggressions


Microaggressions take various forms: microassaults involve direct actions with unrecognized bias, like a white parent asking their children to leave a pool when Black children enter. Microinsults are more subtle, disguised as questions or compliments, such as wanting to touch a Black person’s hair. Microinvalidations deny a person’s identity or experiences, like assuming Black individuals feel less pain due to thicker skin in healthcare settings. Being aware of these examples can help identify and address future microaggressions.

Race and Ethnicity


Racism has evolved from overt hatred to subtler forms like microaggressions. Dr. Sue identified themes of racial microaggressions, including assumptions of foreignness, intelligence judgments, denial of discrimination, pathologizing culture, ignoring intra-ethnic differences, and treating certain races as invisible or inferior. Recognizing these themes helps address unintentional racism.

Gender and Sex


Gender microaggressions encompass harmful behaviors such as sexual objectification, second-class treatment, sexist language or jokes, denial of sexism, restrictive gender roles, assumptions of inferiority, and invisibility. Environmental microaggressions, like gender-based pay disparities, also have significant impacts. Transgender individuals experience common and specific microaggressions, highlighting the need for awareness and change in societal attitudes.

Sexuality and Sexual Orientation


People of diverse sexual orientations experience microaggressions, but the impact and extent can differ. Invisibility and denial are common, where some orientations are not acknowledged (e.g., bisexual individuals). Stereotyping occurs, attributing specific traits to orientations, like seeing bisexual people as promiscuous or asexual individuals as cold. Exclusion is another prevalent microaggression that affects many orientations. Raising awareness and understanding can help combat these harmful behaviors.

Mental Illnesses and Other Conditions


Microaggressions extend beyond sexuality, gender, and race to impact other communities. Those with mental illnesses face overt microaggressions from friends, family, and authority figures. A study identified five forms of microaggression: invalidation, fear of mental illness, shaming, assumption of inferiority, and second-class treatment. Similar experiences occur for individuals with physical and other health conditions. Addressing these issues is vital for promoting inclusivity and empathy.

Health Effects


Microaggressions have significant impacts on physical and mental well-being. As a new and challenging study area with mostly anecdotal evidence, experts believe they can lower self-confidence and trigger depression, anxiety, and trauma. Addressing these effects is vital for a healthier, more inclusive society.

Other Effects


Microaggressions extend beyond the individual level and can impact society as a whole. For instance, a study revealed that women experience delayed diagnoses by four years compared to men, as their symptoms are often downplayed. Additionally, transgender individuals face microaggressions in healthcare settings, leading to distrust in these spaces and professionals in the field. Understanding these broader effects is crucial for creating more equitable and inclusive environments.

Recognizing and Avoiding Microaggressions


Microaggressions are often subtle, and the person responsible might not realize their impact or have good intentions. Avoiding microaggressions starts with acknowledging their presence and consequences. Think carefully about words and how seemingly harmless remarks or questions can hurt others. Cultivating empathy through learning about different cultures, religions, and lifestyles can lead to fewer unintentional microaggressions and greater understanding.

Managing Microaggressions


Responses to microaggressions vary. Open discussions with trusted individuals can be helpful, but it’s important not to pressure the recipient to speak up. Supportive groups can provide comfort within the community. Counseling helps some cope and protect themselves. Addressing microaggressions requires collective efforts, discussions, research, and empathy to tackle societal systemic issues.